Complete my dissertation…. The full work you’ve done so far is copied below these instructionsSECURING LIBERTY, JUSTICE AND SOCIAL EQUALITY FOR ALL IN SOCIETY IN AN ERA OF RISING POVERTY AND INCOME INEQUALITY: A CASE STUDY OF SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA.AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF THE DISSERTATION:The perspectives behind this study include;1. Demonstrating the relevance of social ...[Show More]
Complete my dissertation…. The full work you’ve done so far is copied below these instructions
SECURING LIBERTY, JUSTICE AND SOCIAL EQUALITY FOR ALL IN SOCIETY IN AN ERA OF RISING POVERTY AND INCOME INEQUALITY: A CASE STUDY OF SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA.
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF THE DISSERTATION:
The perspectives behind this study include;
1. Demonstrating the relevance of social policy as a key means in increasing social equality and improving economic development in Africa.
2. Illustrating how economic freedom from the negative effects of globalisation and international organisations can redeem African nations.
3. Many researchers have centred their investigations of African poverty on poor government policies and negative effects of colonialism and post-colonialism; these researchers have failed to stress the vitality of the people carrying out their civic duties and not neglecting their power as citizens. This study would demonstrate the importance of solidarity amongst citizens in order to secure good policies that would favour everyone in the society.
4. Demonstrate how corruption has ruined African economies
5 These ideas are to be discussed and explained throughout the dissertation, and show how proper leadership can redeem the situation through good policies that can enhance livelihood and reduce poverty
6 Also discuss how citizens can help change the situation through public action, exercising their power as citizens and not-being afraid to confront their governments
Me and my tutor discussed about the dissertation and we decided that due to the fact that I cant be able to do interviews, surveys or focus groups I should treat the whole dissertation as a literature review.
These ideas I have mentioned above should be the underlying ideas behind it.. you can use your brilliant research ability and wide knowledge about poverty, social injustice and inequality in Africa to make more points and make it an interesting analysis….
My tutor may still have corrections, would contact you when I get them
You can use surveys, tables, data etc by other researchers
Due to the late response from both me and my tutor, they have decided to extend my deadline to the 20th of July. Please deliver on time.. please I have no time
Table of Contents
The promotion of liberty, justice, and social equality is critical for the achievement of enhanced social/human, political, and economic development. Governments around the globe focus on the promotion of just societies through the alleviation of injustice and the preferment of diversity. Despite the various strategies and measures implemented for the achievement of the aforementioned, countries face major challenges in securing liberty, justice, and social equality for all within their societies. Poverty and social inequality play a significant role in influencing the processes. The sub-Saharan African region experiences major obstacles in the process of securing liberty, social equality, and justice due to the extent of the existing impediments such as poverty and income inequality. Nearly half of the population in this region lives in absolute poverty, meaning that they live on less than a dollar a day. The abject poverty has a plethora of effects on healthcare, education and mortality rates. This poverty persists despite the fact that the continent is richly endowed with natural resources. This paradoxical stature makes it difficult to determine what the exact cause of poverty is, though it may be attributed to corruption and poor governance. This dissertation explores the influence of poverty and income inequality in enhancement of social equality, justice, and establishment of liberty. It outlines the role of policy in addressing poverty and income inequality in sub-Saharan Africa for the achievement of enhanced socio-economic and human development.
According to Cashin, et al. (2001), Chambers (2006) and Lawson-Remer and Greenstein (2012), social inequality in sub-Saharan Africa has been a weighty issue amongst sociologists, economists and other actors in different locations globally. Numerous researchers have attempted to deconstruct the issue, in an attempt to derive a more elaborate understanding of the issue, and how best the problem can be resolved (Our Africa, n.d; Reyes & Due, 2009; White, et al., 2001). In this regard, numerous research papers, working papers, books and policy documents have been authored. This section provides a concise review of the literature on this topic. It is impossible to review all documents and consequently, the favored approach is to review the latest writings as well as some of the most pertinent ones regarding the matter. This section provides a discussion of the literature on this area. The literature review is organized into several subheadings under key themes identified in the literature. Some of the themes discussed include poverty in Africa, social inequality in Africa and the role of policy in eradicating the two matters above.
In order to better
understand poverty in Africa, it is imperative that one must first understand
poverty. There is no single, universally accepted
definition of poverty and indeed, the term varies in its usage and
interpretations depending on the location and context of its application. For
starters, it is important to highlight the issue of relative versus absolute
poverty. Relative poverty regards individuals who have less money than those
living around them
The World Bank
approaches poverty from a dimension of well-being, indicating that poverty is
one of the aspects of well-being alongside inequality and vulnerability
In the first article,
Robert Chambers, from the Institute of Development Studies, Sussex, UK,
indicates that there are at least five clusters of the meaning of poverty. The first cluster is income poverty, the
connotation that is most commonly espoused by economists
has been highlighted that one of the characteristics of poverty is that it varies
based on the context and circumstances within which it is applied. Townsend
aptly captures the essence of this notion whereby he highlights that present
laws, conditions obligations and customs differ from those in the past and as
such, definitions of poverty used in the past cannot suffice today (2006). In
the same manner, a definition of poverty applied in one geographical locale
might not suffice for the purposes of defining poverty in another locale. The context
of poverty is fast changing due to globalization which connects both people and
their standards of living
As noted, one of the
most commonly accepted definitions of poverty has to do with income levels. In
this regard, a threshold known as the poverty line has been defined. The
poverty line essentially refers to the minimum amount that is required by
individuals to satisfy their basic food needs and essential non-food
For the longest time
now, the sub-Saharan region of Africa has often been used as the poster child
of poverty in Africa. Africa is the third biggest continent, comprising of 53
countries. It is the poorest continent in the world. Approximately 42% of all
its inhabitants live below the poverty line
Africa as a continent
is greatly endowed with many natural resources. It hosts a third of the world’s
mineral reserves, and two-thirds of the world’s diamond
Despite its vast
endowment, Africa is plagued by poverty and civil strife, a factor which has
led to the coining of the term ‘resource curse’, to characterize Africa’s
paradoxical stature. Countries that are rich in resources have done more poorly
and experienced more inequalities than
Many countries in
sub-Saharan Africa suffer from endemic corruption. The corruption is often
spearheaded by crooked politicians, who work in cahoots with mining companies
to siphon the proceeds from mining into their own pockets, rather than
depositing this money into government coffers and using it to develop
Poverty in Africa has
a plethora of effects on the population, such as poor health, high mortality
rates, lack of access to vital resources and civil strife. Lawson-Remer &
Greenstein, (2012) highlight that those countries with an abundance of
resources yet weak governance are prone to armed violence. The top oil
producing countries in sub-Saharan Africa in 2011 were Nigeria, Angola, Sudan,
the Republic of Congo and Equatorial Guinea, each of which was plagued by
violent conflict or repressive regimes
The topic of poverty
in Africa begs the question of what can be done to alleviate the condition.
Firstly, it is important to highlight that while Africa indeed appears to
suffer from the resource curse, there are other countries around the globe
which have just as high or higher levels of natural resources, but which do not
suffer from the plagues of corruption and armed violence. For instance, Canada
has among the lowest levels of government corruption globally, yet it remains
amongst the top ten oil producers in the world
Seemingly, the most effective solution to Africa’s poverty problem lies in improved governance. These are some of the characteristics of more developed nations around the globe. Lawson-Remer & Greenstein (2012) recommend that African countries should focus on transparency in their dealings with mining companies, enact more stringent disclosure and anticorruption rules, and develop economic policies that are oriented towards economic diversification. This position is corroborated by Reyes & Due (2009), who indicate that prudent public investment is central to poverty reduction and addressing inequalities.
The importance of
prudent policy making cannot be understated. Cashin, Sahay, & Pattillo
(2001) highlight that there is an indirect link between good macroeconomic
policies and poverty reduction, via the growth route. Good macroeconomic
policies lead to higher growth, whereby higher growth, in turn, leads to a
reduction in poverty. The link between macroeconomic policy and poverty is
further highlighted by Christiaensen, Demery, & Paternostro, (2002). They
provide change data for a number of African countries, finding that where there
has been an improvement in macroeconomic
policy, there has been a subsequent reduction in poverty. Conversely, in those
cases with a significant deterioration in macroeconomic policy, there has also
been a sharp increase in poverty
The IMF points out
several important objectives of economic policy. Firstly, economic policy
should endeavor to maintain macroeconomic stability
When it comes to policy making, public participation is essential. Reyes & Due (2009) point out that one of the approaches that have been applied towards this end is the community-based monitoring systems. These systems allow the poor to validate the information collected. This enhances the efficiency of poverty reduction programs. Pieterse, Parnell, & Wooldridge (1999), further emphasize the role of democratization and public participation in policy-making.
Social policy influences social and economic development significantly. According to Ehrenpreis (2006) and Willis (2011), social policy focuses on addressing social issues in the society through the development of social services and policies that focus on the protection of the wellbeing of the citizenry. Every government develops measures for curbing critical social issues such as poverty, disease, hunger, and death resulting from social problems. The development of these measures and policy ensures social protection and the promotion of welfare. However, the impacts may differ from country to country because of different issues including the implementation measures and techniques. All notwithstanding, Spicker (2016) and African Union Commission (2008), argue that social policy is critical for the development of the social wellbeing and the economic state of societies. Effective implementation addresses concerns of rising social inequalities and low economic development. In the case of sub-Saharan Africa, effective social policy development and implementation promises to increase social equality and trigger economic development. A discussion of different aspects of social policy depicts its relevance in boosting socio-economic development in the region.
As Spicker (2016) asserts, social policy addresses
key areas of social and economic development, which remain of critical concern
in SSA. In the development of the welfare states and social services, social
policy development emphasizes the importance of developing and encouraging
growth in areas that directly influence the life of citizens. Social and human
development are directly influenced by the availability and quality of social
services such as health care, housing, community care, education, employment,
and social security among others
Social policy in SSA is relevant in addressing the concerns of social disadvantage in the communities of SSA. The key concern in the region involves social inequality mainly on income, poverty, or gender. Addressing these issues requires the implementation of efficient measures and strategies. Key among the necessary measures is effective social policy development. According to African Union Commission (2008) and Spicker (2016), social policy is critical and highly relevant in dealing with social problems linked to social disadvantage. However, the effective of the strategy depends greatly on the implementation and the integration of other measures. Every country in SSA would find the social policy essentially relevant in addressing the concerns of the citizens. Social problems are rampant in the region with unemployment, crime, illiteracy, disease, poverty, and social inequality posing serious social challenges in the region. Lund (2008) contends that the situation, especially concerning social inequality is alarming and demands immediate attention. Social policy promises socio-economic development. However, there is a need for effective leadership in the region, which is important for the efficient management of resources and addressing issues of social inequality and other social challenges.
Social policy defines a country’s
social spending and its focus on social challenges. Some of the major issues
that a country must address through the social spending policies include cases
of social inequality and underdevelopment. According to Devlin (2010), social protection, a key aspect of social policy,
plays an important role in addressing social challenges and social
inequalities. Alcock and Craig (2009)
contend that social protection is highly relevant and essential in addressing
the concerns of the SSA countries. Most of the countries, as Lund (2008) asserts, record insurmountable
social problems closely-linked to poverty and social inequalities on the basis
of income and gender and thus require immediate solutions. The integration of
social protection in social policy development is essential for addressing,
among other concerns, social inequality that affects the poor, low income
earners, and the female gender among other vulnerable groups. Social protection
includes the policies or measures for the enhancement of the capacity of low
income earners, the poor, and other vulnerable groups to ensure alleviation of
poverty and the management of the shocks and risks
As an aspect of social policy,
social protection incorporates the tools required for the alleviation of
extreme poverty and hunger, social inequalities in terms of gender and income,
and the reduction of societal vulnerabilities. The implementation of a good
social protection strategy allows the excellent management of shocks and risks
associated with poverty and the vulnerabilities. Social policy-making and the
development of social protection measures and guidelines in developed countries
have led to significant social, economic, and human development. For instance,
the UK, Germany, Norway, and France have extensive social policy programs that
address major social challenges
The SSA suffers numerous social
challenges that can be greatly averted through the implementation of social
protection using efficient social policies. The integration of the aspect in
the management of the social challenges would allow the promotion of security
and the creation of empowered communities through the improvement of risk
management, creating efficient avenues for low income earners and women to
venture successfully in business, and equal opportunities and access to quality
social services and life opportunities. According to a report by the African Union Commission (2008), ensuring the
above-mentioned allows the development of human capital and the general
development of women and low income earners and vulnerable groups. The
implementation of social protection prevents another key social challenge; the
transmission of the social challenges such as poverty, disease, and illiteracy
among others through generations. Therefore, social policy is clearly relevant
in the promotion of social equality and economic development in SSA. The
governments of the countries in the region should focus on the development of
social policies that address the concerns and join hands with the international
communities in striving towards the achievement of the Millennium Development
Goals (MDG). Critical MDGs include the eradication of social challenges
including extreme poverty and hunger, improving access to quality health care,
ensuring that all school-going children have access to education regardless of
gender, and promoting equality for all irrespective of gender, class, income,
A report by OECD (2009) argues that social protection is relevant in addressing
income poverty and for enhancing more extensive national developments such as
education outcomes, improving nutrition, and healthcare. The application of
social protection is SSA promises improved social and human development, which
are directly inter-connected to economic development. For instance, while most
countries in Africa face a major gender inequality challenge where the
girl-child lacks an equal opportunity to attend school and women are
discriminated and offered limited chances and opportunities, the implementation
of social protection is crucial. Social policy that allows a considerable
social spending on social protection serves a greater role in the promotion of
women empowerment and the improvement of gender balance in sub-Saharan Africa
The implementation of the social
protection and other aspects of the social policy in SSA will demand the
collaboration with different stakeholders including majorly the international
community and donor organizations. Governments in the region should focus on
the attainment of social equality and sustainable economic development for
enhanced human development and the betterment of the society. Efforts to
implement social policy in Africa will require the consideration of the
different challenges that impact on the communities. The implementation of
strategies that deal with the challenges will alleviate their impact on African
livelihoods. Alcock and Craig (2009)
contend that stronger social protection measures in SSA will ensure that the
poor, low income earners, and vulnerable groups such as girls, women, and
people suffering from chronic diseases have equal access to social services.
Additionally, such measures will allow economic development by empowering the
groups and the society in general. Moreover, the pursuance of the same goals as
the international communities and involving donors and other agencies will not
only ensure that the most disadvantaged are reached and the dire challenges
addressed but also give the countries direction in addressing the issues.
However, a clear mission and vision by the different countries in the region is
essential to ensure alignment with national resources and development goals
The relevance of social protection programs in the reduction of poverty and the vulnerabilities therein is undeniable. Vulnerability and poverty remain major issues of concern in the region. According to Polity (2015), vulnerability is the reflection of the poor people’s exposure to factors or shocks that impact on their wellbeing negatively, in a way that the poor persons cannot manage or cope with the risk. Due to the extensive percentage of poverty in SSA, most people in the region have few resources or capabilities to manage most of the shocks/risks they face. Therefore, they are vulnerable and require assistance in overcoming most social challenges. Social protection is relevant in addressing the concerns. As such, it is critical for the enhancement of social and economic development. This is because as African Union Commission (2008) asserts, the vulnerabilities and risks contribute largely towards the development of social concerns such as poverty and limited socio-economic development.
Despite the influence and relevance
of social policy in Africa, many countries in the SSA have made insignificant
steps in its development. Following the ineffectiveness in the implementation
of social or lack thereof, poverty and social inequality remain adamant within
the communities. A larger percentage of sub-Saharan Africans live below the
poverty line and experience numerous social challenges. The social inequality
and poverty have led to the development of other social problems that must be
addressed for the achievement of any significant human, social, or economic
development. The creation of effective social protection frameworks for the
countries is essential for dealing with the challenges. According to Lund (2008), the framework must address the
core issues such as social security, focus on the development of income
equality, promote job creation to curb unemployment, implement social welfare
programs, encourage the development of the quality of education, and consider
the issue of accessible and quality healthcare services. The development of a
framework that tackles the issues will equip any of the countries in the region
to handle the alarming issues of rising inequalities, break-off
inter-generational poverty, and boost socio-economic development
Alcock and Craig (2009) point out that many African countries have not invested in the development or access to social protection and thus face greater challenges in the protection of the wellbeing of their citizens and the promotion of welfare. Countries within the sub-Saharan Africa should focus on the systematic development of social policy to ensure effective social security and social protection for the enhancement of social and economic development in the region. The gradual development of the different aspects of social policy will allow the improvement in the different states of the communities. For instance, the development of the social policy programs such as social protection/security may include the development of new insurance schemes or the extension of the existing. The schemes may consider the less fortunate such as the poor or low income-earners and integrate subsidies that would allow them access. Additionally, as African Union Commission (2008) asserts, there is a need for governments in the region to focus on the development of occupation/community-based schemes for the promotion of the required insurance services.
There is a need for the SSA
governments to implement different strategies for the achievement of success in
addressing the social challenges of poverty and social inequality. In the implementation
of the social protection framework, the countries should consider issues such
as essential tools and the strategy for the coverage extension
the implementation of social policy especially social protection and security
may pose significant challenges in developing and underdeveloped countries,
creating a framework that allows a minimum package proves essential. Spicker (2016) sites that is feasible for high
and low-income countries and thus is applicable in African countries. The
application of the minimum package in developed countries has led to the
development of poor communities and the improvement of the welfare and
wellbeing of low-income earners. For instance, in the UK, the integration of
minimum package in the social protection/security policy impacts greatly on the
livelihood of all citizens, bridging the gap between the rich and the poor
significantly. OECD (2009) argues that
the minimum package impacts greatly on the economic and the social welfare of
communities upon implementation. The package plays a crucial role in curbing
poverty, reducing social inequality, increasing livelihood, and triggering
economic development. The application of the minimum package in SSA is
important for the enhancement of economic development and the elevation of social
According to Tonnemacher (2008), social policy development is essential in
Africa. However, effective implementation is affected by different aspects from
political influence to social and economic factors. Therefore, there is a need
for governments from the sub-Saharan African countries to focus on bringing
different stakeholders aboard in the social policy creation. The governments
should term social protection their obligation and focus on building political
consensus surrounding the issue. Additionally, inclusion of social policy and
specifically social protection in the poverty reduction and development plans
in accordance with the guidance of the MNDs and international community is an
important process. Moreover, the governments should focus on developing
stronger institutions that allow the implementation of the policies. The
process of implementation should be followed by efficient assessment and
evaluation of the programs to ensure that social protection impacts maximally
on the communities, minimizing poverty, enhancing access to quality health
care, and education among others
As discussed in the
section of social protection, social policy is highly relevant in the promotion
of social equality and the promotion of economic development. The quality of
health in a country influences the extent of development. A healthy citizenry
contributes greatly towards the economic development of a country. In Africa,
especially SSA, the health sector is poorly developed and impacts on the social
and economic wellbeing of the people negatively. However, in the recent past,
in the quest to achieve the MDGs most of the countries within the region have
implemented various strategies for the improvement of health care. According to
White, et al. (2001), the improvement of
the sector will influence the development of the health status and the
wellbeing of Africans. Regardless, most citizens in the different countries
continue to suffer the debilitating effects of poor health. A large part of the
population, especially those living below the poverty line and other low-income
earners continue to experience insurmountable health risks and problems related
to treatable, manageable, or preventable diseases or conditions
According to African Union Commission (2008), most countries
in Africa record a significant burden of non-communicable diseases from
communicable ones, which impact greatly on the socio-economic development. The
WHO offers an extensive discussion of the health care in most African countries
and asserts that malaria, HIV, and other diseases such as tuberculosis impact
negatively on economic development of the region. The disease burden in the
region reduces the Africa’s annual GDP growth by up to 1.3%, limiting social and
economic development in a major way
According to the
UNAIDS and the WHO, most people suffering from HIV/AIDS are from Africa.
Studies conducted by the two organizations reveal that approximately 68 percent
and 90 percent of adults and children living with HIV/AIDS in the world are in
Africa. The condition affects a large population in the continent and influence
human and economic development majorly
TB and Malaria also
impact on the health and wellbeing of African in a major way. TB influences the
development of HIV/AIDS and thus causes a significant increase in morbidities
and mortalities related to the pandemic. TB causes most of the deaths of HIV
infected persons and mostly affects the low-income earners and vulnerable
groups. This indicates the extent of social inequality in the continent. On the
other hand, malaria affects pregnant women and children causing a great health
problem. The impact of the disease on social and health services calls for the
development of measures that prevent the disease
The influence of
health in Africa depicts the importance of quality health in reducing poverty
and promoting socio-economic development. The development of a social policy
that addresses the concerns of health in the SSA will unlock the potential of
the high population of Africans who will contribute directly towards
The increasing globalization experienced in the past few decades has enhanced economic and social integration causing a significant global impact. The impact of the increased social and economic interaction and integration differs from country to another. Generally, globalization has triggered economic integration leading to extensive global development. According to IMF (2007), globalization leads to improved international trade, enhanced technological development, and better access to cheaper imports, human capital, and capital flows. Additionally, globalization and the growth of international organizations causes the development of markets and the creation of greater networks of production and distribution. Even when globalization and international organizations have numerous positive impacts, the negative impacts are equally many. However, their influence in developing countries is greater as compared to the impact they have on developed countries. The acquisition of economic freedom is crucial for the redemption of African countries from the impacts of the negative effects of globalization and international organizations.
Globalization and the
influence of international organizations have resulted in various negative
socio-economic effects in the SSA. The increased international integration resulting
from globalization and urbanization influences the development of
socio-economic interaction between governments, states, organizations, and
individuals from the world over. The interaction and integration trigger
enhanced international trade, which elevates income inequalities, mostly in
developing countries. The development of income inequality in Africa advances
the extent of the problem in the region causing even greater social problems.
The improvement in integration of global markets is economically destructive,
serves as a sign of injustice, increases inequality in access to opportunity,
and causes the development of insider privilege. According to Goldberg and Pavcnik (2007), the destruction
caused in developing countries results from the interaction of the
underdeveloped markets and the inefficient programs implemented by governments,
which limit the rate of social and economic growth. Most countries in the
sub-Saharan Africa are developing, have underdeveloped markets, and due to
corruption and poor governance, their governments have poorly implemented
policies for the economic development
In SSA, globalization
favours the development of inequality more than it promotes equality. Over the
decades, inequality in the region has remained a major issue of concern, which
has even advanced in the rise of the increasing globalization. Though the
increased global interaction/integration and the development of global markets
caused by globalization triggers the development of highly effective markets,
these are not equally shared. Developed countries benefit the most from the
development of global markets while the developing ones reap lesser benefits
international organizations continue to cause the development of inequality in
developing countries. The issue affects the African communities greatly,
causing multiple social problems that limit economic, social, and human
development. According to IMF (2007),
globalization triggers the development of trade markets, technological
advancement, and an improved flow in capital, which collectively cause a rapid
increase in the global demand for skills. The demand does not match the supply
and thus causes an increment in inequality in countries across the world. In
developing states, the shortage in supply of skilled persons in the global
market triggers emigration of the skilled persons. The skilled individuals
leave the poor developing countries for developed ones in search of better life
The entry of most
sub-Saharan African countries into the globalization era ill-prepared or with
the wrong assets promotes the effects of globalization on the countries and
their citizens. Most sub-Saharan African countries depend on the exportation of
primary commodities such as coffee and oil among others
The explanation of the
influence of globalization and the impact of international organizations on SSA
countries cannot be fully exploited without the integration of different
theories. The enhanced economic, political, and social integration experienced
in the recent decades because off urbanization, technological advancement, and
globalization affects trade, foreign direct investment, global markets, and
benefit the countries and the people differently
According to Goldberg and Pavcnik (2007), the economic
theory plays a significant role in explaining the extent of the influence of
globalization and the operation of MNEs in developing countries. The major
argument of the economic theory is that an increase in consumption of products
and services boosts economic development. However, Baek and Shi (2016) assert that even though globalization has led
to an increase in consumption and a consequent economic and social development,
it continues to promote inequality in poor developing countries. The development
of inequality in sub-Saharan African countries, for instance, can be attributed
to the influence of globalization. The economic theory argues that poor credit
markets and insufficient education translates to a negative impact on the poor
since only the rich benefit from the global markets. For instance, as The Economist (2014) asserts, this is the case
since the poor and low income earners lack the essential capital and,
therefore, they cannot benefit from the high returns they are supposed to attain
from their operations. Additionally, globalization causes a dis-equal society
where the less fortunate find it difficult to invest, acquire quality education
and health care, thus making it difficult to benefit from the influence of
The Stolper-Samuelson Theorem offers an extensive explanation of the influence of globalization and the influence of MNEs on different countries. The theorem states that
“in a two-country two-factor framework, increased
trade openness in a developing country where low-skilled labor is abundant
would result in an increase in the wages of low-skilled workers and the
reduction in the compensation of high-skilled workers, leading to a reduction
in income inequality”
However, the theorem argues that this would only be the case if certain economic assumptions such as perfect competition and that the consideration of constant returns to scale are made. Moreover, the theory asserts that the reduction of tariffs on imports the prices of products that require a lot of high skills record decrease. Additionally, the compensation of the skilled personnel decreases while the prices of products and services that require less skill in countries with relatively sufficient factors rise as does the compensation for the workers. Countries with relatively abundant high-skill factors, mainly developed countries, record increased inequality upon an increase in trade and market openness. While this is the case, inequality in developing countries should decrease upon entering the global markets.
Globalization causes increased
global market integration and thus increased trade openness. This impacts
greatly on developed and developing countries. According to Stolper-Samuelson
Theorem, the influence should be positive on developing countries with
expectations of reduced inequality through the improvement of income to
low-earners and the unskilled employees
The theory of RCA discusses the
influence of globalization and MNEs through the analysis of the foreign direct
investment and trade. It asserts that both FDI and trade consider the influence
of labour in developing countries and focus on taking advantage of the
sufficient therein to cause the development of activities that utilize the
African states and the entirety of Africa should focus on the creation of
platforms for the development of economic freedom to alleviate the negative
impacts of globalization and international organizations. According to King, et al. (2012), economic freedom is the
liberalization of a country or region’s economies achieved through the creation
and implementation of sound economic reforms. While some of African economies
have a given degree of economic freedom, others have depicted to stagnant
development in freedom. For instance, most SSA countries record low economic
freedom due to the influence of globalization and international organizations.
Most countries in the region such as Chad and Congo among others have recorded
alarmingly low freedom. According to an assessment made in 2007, seven of the
poorly performing economies in terms of freedom were located in the SSA region.
Additionally, most of the countries performed poorly in particular areas such
as business freedom and property rights and depicted low freedom from
Most of the economies
in the SSA region have shown the plateau effect since 2000. There is a need for
the countries to adopt reforms that promote the development of freer economies.
The prioritization of economic freedom, according to King, et al. (2012), is an effective way of promoting or reforming
the welfare state critical for the development of equality in the region. The
development of freer economies is essential for the enhancement of
sustainability and equitability of the economies
that guarantee freedom from regulation is an important move for the acquisition
of economic freedom in Africa. The freedom allows the efficient resource
allocation which boost social and economic development. This would prove
effective in reducing social inequality in sub-Saharan Africa and promoting
human development. Additionally, there is need for the governments in the
region to focus on the provision of transparent, accountable, and corruption-free
governance that allows good leadership and management from all quarters. While
these ensure the development of freer markets and economies, the development of
strategies for limiting excessive economic freedom is of greater importance
AfDBG, 2016. African Natural Resources Center
Available at: http://www.afdb.org/en/topics-and-sectors/initiatives-partnerships/african-natural-resources-center-anrc/
Union Commission, 2008. Social Policy Framework forr Africa. [Online]
Available at: www.africa-union.org
[Accessed 6 July 2016].
Alcock, P. & Craig, G., 2009. International social policy : welfare regimes in the developed world. Basingstoke, Hampshire: Palgrave.
Artadi, E. V. & Sala-i-Martin, X., 2003. The Economic Tragedy of the XXth Century: Growth In Africa. Cambridge: NATIONAL BUREAU OF ECONOMIC RESEARCH.
Baek, I. & Shi, Q., 2016. Impact of Economic Globalization on Income Inequality: Developed Economies vs Emerging Economies. Global Economy Journal, 16(1), pp. 49-61.
Bastian, H., 2015. Capturing Individual Uptake: Toward a Disruptive Research Methodology. Composition Forum, Volume 31.
2012. Africa Debate: Will Africa ever benefit from its natural resources?. [Online]
Available at: http://www.bbc.com/news/world-africa-19926886
Bourguignon, F., 2016. Inequality and Globalization. Foreign Affairs, 95(1), pp. 11-15.
Cashin, P., Sahay, R. & Pattillo, C. A., 2001. Macroeconomic Policies and Poverty Reduction: Stylized Facts and an Overview of Research, Issues 2001-2135. s.l.:International Monetary Fund.
Chambers, R., 2006. What is Poverty? Who asks? Who answers?. Poverty in Focus, December, pp. 3-4.
Christiaensen, L. J., Demery, L. & Paternostro, S., 2002. Growth, Distribution and Poverty in Africa: Messages from the 1990s, Volume 614. s.l.:World Bank Publications.
Devlin, J., 2010. Challenges of economic development in the Middle East and North Africa region. Singapore ; Hackensack, NJ : World Scientific.
Ehrenpreis, D., ed., 2006. What is poverty? Concepts and measures. Brasilia: UNDP International Poverty Centre (IPC).
Policy Forum, 2006. Globalization Will Increase Inequality. [Online]
Available at: https://www.globalpolicy.org/component/content/article/218-injustice-and-inequality/46552.html
[Accessed 10 July 2016].
Goldberg, P. K. & Pavcnik, N., 2007. Distributional Effects of Globalization in Developing Countries, Cambridge: National Bureau of Economic Research.
Ha, E., 2012. Globalization, Government Ideology, and Income Inequality in Developing Countries. Journal of Politics, 74(2), pp. 541-557.
Staff, 2000. Policies for Faster Growth and Poverty Reduction in Sub-Saharan
Africa and the Role of the IMF. [Online]
Available at: https://www.imf.org/external/np/exr/ib/2000/120100.htm#III
2007. Globalization and Inequality; Chapter 4: World Economic Outlook. [Online]
Available at: https://www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/weo/2007/02/pdf/c4.pdf
[Accessed 10 July 2016].
King, E. M., Montenegro, C. E. & Orazem, P. F., 2012. Economic Freedom, Human Rights, and the Returns to Human Capital: An Evaluation of the Schultz Hypothesis. Economic Development & Cultural Change, 61(1), pp. 39-71.
T. & Greenstein, J., 2012. Beating the Resource Curse in Africa: A
Global Effort. [Online]
Available at: http://www.cfr.org/africa-sub-saharan/beating-resource-curse-africa-global-effort/p28780
Lund, F. J., 2008. Changing social policy : the Child Support Grant in South Africa. Cape Town: HSRC.
Mubvami, T., 1999. Urban Poverty in Zimbabwe, The Case of Harare. In: Urban poverty in Africa: Selected countries experiences. . Nairobi, Kenya: United Nations Centre for Human Settlements (Habitat).
Geographic, 2006. Africa: Resources. [Online]
Available at: http://nationalgeographic.org/encyclopedia/africa-resources/
2009. Social Protection, Poverty Reduction and Pro-Poor Growth. [Online]
Available at: https://www.oecd.org/dac/povertyreduction/43573310.pdf
[Accessed July 2016].
Africa, n.d. Poverty. [Online]
Available at: http://www.our-africa.org/poverty
Pawar, M. S., 2014. Data collecting methods and experiences : a guide for social researchers. Elgin, IL: New Dawn Press.
Phillips, P. P. & Stawarski, C. A., 2008. Data collection : planning for and collecting all types of data. San Francisco: Pfeiffer.
Pieterse, E., Parnell, S. & Wooldridge, D., 1999. Emerging Architecture of Developmental Local Government in South Africa & Prospects for Poverty Reduction. In: Urban Poverty in Africa: Selected Countries Experience. s.l.:UN-Habitat, pp. 1-15.
2015. What is Social Policy?. [Online]
Available at: www.polity.co.uk/shortintroductions/samples/dean-sample.pdf
[Accessed 5 July 2016].
Reyes, C. & Due, E., 2009. Fighting Poverty with Facts: Community-based Monitoring Systems. s.l.:IDRC.
Saunders, M., Lewis, P. & Thornhill, A., 2016. Research methods for business students. Harlow: Pearson Education Limited.
P., 2016. Social Policy. [Online]
Available at: http://www.spicker.uk/social-policy/socpol.htm
[Accessed 6 July 2016].
Project, 2014. Top 10 Poverty in Africa Facts. [Online]
Available at: http://borgenproject.org/10-quick-facts-about-poverty-in-africa/
Economist, 2007. Economic freedom in Africa. [Online]
Available at: http://www.economist.com/node/9196271
[Accessed 10 July 2016].
Economist, 2014. Why globalisation may not reduce inequality in poor
Available at: http://www.economist.com/blogs/economist-explains/2014/09/economist-explains-0
[Accessed 10 July 2016].
Economist, 2015. The twilight of the resource curse?. [Online]
Available at: http://www.economist.com/news/middle-east-and-africa/21638141-africas-growth-being-powered-things-other-commodities-twilight
World Bank, n.d. Measuring Poverty. [Online]
Available at: http://go.worldbank.org/0C60K5UK40
Tonnemacher, S., 2008. Poverty in africa - cultural studies. S.l.: Grin Verlag Ohg.
Townsend, P., 2006. What is Poverty? An historical perspective. Poverty In Focus, December, pp. 5-6.
Nations, 2016. Millennium Development Goals. [Online]
Available at: http://www.un.org/millenniumgoals/
[Accessed 5 July 2016].
White, H., Killick, T. & Kayizzi-Mugerwa, S., 2001. African Poverty at the Millennium: Causes, Complexities, and Challenges. s.l.:World Bank Publications.
Willis, K., 2011. Theories and Practices of Development. London: Taylor & Francis.
Xiaobo, Z. & Zhang, K. H., 2003. How Does Globalisation Affect Regional Inequality Within a Developing Country? Evidence from China?. Journal Of Development Studies , 39(4), p. 47.
Published: 2 weeks ago
Published By: Simon A-Writer
University of Kabianga > Essay > SECURING LIBERTY, JUSTICE AND SOCIAL EQUALITY FOR ALL IN SOCIETY IN AN ERA OF RISING POVERTY AND INCOME INEQUALITY: A CASE STUDY OF SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA page(s)
Purchase the document to unlock it.
This paper costs $ 10
You may use credit points to purchase the paper. Register below to earn 25 credits. Register Here >>
|Published By:||Simon A-Writer|
|Published On:||2 weeks ago|
|Number of pages:||51|
You may use credit points to purchase the paper. Register below to earn 25 credits. Register Here >>